COMING OF EUROPEANS
Factors behind coming of Europeans:
- European economy was growing rapidly reflected in the rise of towns and increase of trade and there was a steady demand for oriental goods.
- There was increase in supply of meat, led to increased demand for pepper and spices
- The Ottaman Turks captured Constantinople in 1453 and established a virtual monopoly over trade in pepper and also controlled trade routes in Mediterranean sea and Red sea, this worked against the Europeans.
- Venice and Genoa which were earlier active in trade in oriental goods were too small to stand up to the Turks and Venice came to terms with the Turks
- The Genoese aided the west European countries such as Spain and Portugal to find a direct sea route to India through Africa
- Of all the European countries, Portuguese were the earliest to succeed due to the patronage of Portuguese ruler Dom Henrique, the use of mariner’s compass and the astrolable for navigation by day. The spirit of daring and enterprise certainly helped him.
- The Portuguese had the twin objectives of ousting the Arabs as wells as the European rivals, the Venetians from the rich eastern trade and secondly they wanted to counterpoise the growing power of the Turks and Arabs by converting the heathens of Africa and Asia to Christianity, which had the sanction of Pope in 1453.